Was Indira Gandhi solely responsible for the emergency? What was the reason for the emergency?

Updated on : January 17, 2022 by Lauren Fisher



Was Indira Gandhi solely responsible for the emergency? What was the reason for the emergency?

Threats to national security after the war against Pakistan, the additional challenges of the drought, the poor economic situation due to the 1973 oil crisis were the official reasons for declaring the emergency. The government claimed that the strikes and protests had paralyzed the government and greatly harmed the country's economy. Faced with massive political opposition, desertion and disorder throughout the country and the party, Indira Gandhi listened to her son Sanjay Gandhi and SS Roy, the then CM of Bengal, and imposed an "internal emergency".

The unofficial reason was that Indira Gandhi lost her illegal election case in Allahabad high court. JP's movement was taking shape and it was becoming difficult for Indira. JP even said, "Leave your chair ... people are coming." Then, desperate, she went to declare an emergency.

Indira Gandhi was advised to come in an emergency, but she is still responsible for this as she was the nation's prime minister.

INTRODUCTION - Indira Gandhi became PM in 1966 for the first time. Before that, she was Minister of Foreign Affairs. A girl who was not good at studying and joined politics to help her father suddenly became interested. Now, when she was foreign minister, she began to penetrate deeply into politics. Then when she became PM in 1966, she still needed a loyal person to guide her perfectly. Then he called to his right hand PK haksar. A Kashmiri man, very sharp-minded person. People said that PK haksar was the backbone of Indira Gandhi. Now the 1969 congress was divided and now one group was r

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INTRODUCTION - Indira Gandhi became PM in 1966 for the first time. Before that, she was Minister of Foreign Affairs. A girl who was not good at studying and joined politics to help her father suddenly became interested. Now, when she was foreign minister, she began to penetrate deeply into politics. Then when she became PM in 1966, she still needed a loyal person to guide her perfectly. Then he called to his right hand PK haksar. A Kashmiri man, very sharp-minded person. People said that PK haksar was the backbone of Indira Gandhi. Now the 1969 congress was divided and now a group was rising towards Indira. Indira knew it perfectly. Now the story changed in 1971. After the WESTERN PAKISTAN war in 1971. Indira became one of the dominant leaders in the world, all the international media began to pay attention to her. The opposition became silent as hell. People used to call her IRON LADY and nobody dared to speak in front of Indira. All cabinet ministers used to fear it.

As I always said, every story has a turning point.

1974 was that

The Bihar Movement was started by students in Bihar in 1974 and led by veteran Gandhian socialist Jayaprakash Narayan, popularly known as JP, against misrule and corruption in the Bihar government. He later turned against the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in the central government.

Now that Jansangh was also raising ATAL, ADVANI, NANAJI. And before that, all the opposition leaders began to join hands to get Indira Gandhi out of her chair.

Then comes the case of Raj Narayan, he was a leader who does not fear anyone. He was in jail for many years during the British government (before 1947). He contested the election of Rae Bareilly and there was a 70% chance that he would defeat Indira. Because it was very popular in that area and I was very safe. But after the result he lost more than 100,000 votes, it was unexpected. Raj Narayan was very sure that something was done to prevent him from winning the election, even the people were shocked. The people affirm that the Soviet Union helped Indira to win those elections. Before the election of the day with the dye paper was changed, and the officers also corrupted a lot.

Raj Narayan called Shantibushan (famous lawyer) and told him the story. Now they decided to fight the case. Three points were raised in front of the judge.

  1. Regarding the symbol of the Congress, which was of COW and calf, he said that it affects the feeling of the people and that a religious symbol cannot be used.
  2. The officials are not used to helping in the electoral campaigns (Speaker and chair that they directed for Indira) because at the moment of the elections no one is given the favor.

Indira changed the Bluebook and did it on purpose for the elections.

The court accepted the accusation, but Congress was delayed 20 days. Now the game changed, Indira was under pressure and JP, who had become a thorn in her eyes. Indira only had a difficult option because she knew perfectly well that her political career would end if she loses in SC, since SC will impose a 6-year ban on her. Now, on June 25, that black day arrived. An emergency was declared.

People say that late at night at 00:15 am the president signed emergency orders.

The opposition leader was arrested. Censorship was introduced. Lakhs of people were arrested. Now after that, Jan Sangha went underground. One leader who escaped and went to Aboard was Subramanian swamy. The Jan sangha members know that they would get nothing to protest in India. Then Swamy came on board (USA) and began to tell Indira facts since she was very aware of the international image. Then he came to attend parliament and escape. This infuriated Indira Gandhi since no one dared to do this at that time. Swamy Subramanian became a Poster boy. EMERGENCY HERO in the eyes of the people and in the eyes of INDIRA MOST WANTED. They put 18 suitcases. Indira told Interpole that he is a criminal and now Interpole was chasing him. But Swamy was no less than her. He also escaped to Harvard and Nepal (his student was King) and lived there. Atal Bihari signed the paper and obtained the bond. Emergency had taken a violent look. The Kannada actress died in jail due to an inhalation problem. The situation was very bad in India. Now, after that, Indira realized that she could no longer handle it, since she was ill and was thinking of turning Sanjay Gandhi into her successor. On March 23, 1977, he ended the Emergency, freeing all opposition leaders. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. Emergency had taken a violent look. The Kannada actress died in jail due to an inhalation problem. The situation was very bad in India. Now, after that, Indira realized that she could no longer handle it, since she was ill and was thinking of turning Sanjay Gandhi into her successor. On March 23, 1977, he ended the Emergency, freeing all opposition leaders. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. Emergency had taken a violent look. The Kannada actress died in jail due to an inhalation problem. The situation was very bad in India. Now, after that, Indira realized that she could no longer handle it, since she was ill and was thinking of turning Sanjay Gandhi into her successor. On March 23, 1977, he ended the Emergency, freeing all opposition leaders. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. as she was ill and was thinking of making Sanjay Gandhi her successor. On March 23, 1977, he ended the Emergency, freeing all opposition leaders. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. as she was ill and was thinking of making Sanjay Gandhi her successor. On March 23, 1977, he ended the Emergency, freeing all opposition leaders. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM. The Janata Party won by majority. Morarji became PM.

But shortly after 1979, Congress regained power, snatching Charan Singh's support and winning the election. Due to lack of trust, the Morarji government failed.

The 1975-1977 emergency was the culmination of the preceding ten years of Indira Gandhi's political machinations.

The severe economic crisis and a drastic reduction in GDP (due to a host of factors such as the 1971 India-Pakistan war, the 1973 oil crisis, and widespread protests and strikes) were cited as the official reasons for the statement. of emergency.

The real reasons are more subtle and illuminating.

After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966, the old guard of Congress (known as the Syndicate) proposed the name of Indira Gandhi as a candidate for prime minister, to surpass Morarji Desai, who long ago

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The 1975-1977 emergency was the culmination of the preceding ten years of Indira Gandhi's political machinations.

The severe economic crisis and a drastic reduction in GDP (due to a host of factors such as the 1971 India-Pakistan war, the 1973 oil crisis, and widespread protests and strikes) were cited as the official reasons for the statement. of emergency.

The real reasons are more subtle and illuminating.

After the death of Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966, the old guard of Congress (known as the Syndicate) proposed the name of Indira Gandhi as a candidate for prime minister, to surpass Morarji Desai, who had long coveted the position of first. Minister. Indira was the obvious choice: she had the last name, she was young and, most importantly, she had no experience. The Syndicate thought it could be easily manipulated. Finally, a compromise was reached in which Indira was sworn in as Prime Minister and Desai was offered the position of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance.

Ms. Gandhi was, to borrow a phrase from the eminent historian Ramchandra Guha, non-ideological, and she remained suspicious of the old guard of Congress from the start. During his early years, he acquired a group of advisers who were not particularly political: career diplomat TN Kaul, politician-turned-diplomat DP Dhar, economist-turned-Mandarin PN Dhar, policeman-turned-security analyst RN Rao, and the leader of this brigade was PN Haksar. , who was Ms. Gandhi's main secretary. All five were young, highly educated, and had little patience with the quasi-socialist model of government advocated by veterans.

Soon, the rift between Ms Gandhi's supporters (known as the Young Turks) and the Syndicate widened. Finally, Congress was divided in 1969 and Desai was relieved of the Finance portfolio. The newest Congress (R) was born.

Nietzsche once wrote: "He who fights with monsters can be careful not to become a monster." Ms. Gandhi, who had hitherto been critical of the communist-socialist policies of the veterans, began to act in a similar way, to explicitly identify with the poor and oppressed, and strengthen their cause. She enacted certain reforms that included, among other things, the nationalization of private banks, the abolition of private portfolios, and the guaranteed minimum wage for rural and industrial workers.

The nationalization of the banks was challenged in the Supreme Court, the challenge was upheld, but the sentence was immediately overturned by a new ordinance introduced by the government. Although Ms. Gandhi was successful, she was reminded of the fact that the institution of the Judiciary still existed and could control its power, if necessary. In effect, the Judiciary is the highest interpreter of the Constitution.

Then came the India-Pakistan War of 1971, which resulted in a decisive victory for India. The prime minister was high on the elixir of victory and tried to make political capital out of what the soldiers had accomplished (and clip the wings of the judiciary in the process). It unleashed a series of reforms, some good and some bad. Among the bad guys, the most controversial was the appointment of a new Chief Justice. In the past, when a Chief Justice retired, the oldest member of the court took his place. This time, Judge AN Ray, a loyalist to Congress, was promoted while three colleagues were ahead of him. Later, the courts ratified several of the laws approved by the Indira government, to the consternation of eminent jurists and politicians.

This was the final straw and brought veteran leader Jaya Prakash Narayan out of retirement. Narayan was an experienced politician and he saw from afar the damage that Indira's policies were doing to the young democracy. He began his protests, the so-called JP movement, which spread like wildfire and attracted middle-class students and workers. It is a curious coincidence that the economic change due to the 1971 war (the same war that had initially fueled Ms. Gandhi's popularity) and the 1973 oil crisis conspired to drive poor rural and industrial workers away from Ms. Gandhi and lead them into Jaya's arms. Prakash Narayan. Over time, the protests escalated and the rest, as they say, is history.

It's easy to vilify Ms Gandhi for an emergency, but it raises an important question: can history be made and undone by just one man (or a woman, in this case)? Ms. Gandhi was the first female Prime Minister in a deeply patriarchal and conservative society, pushed under the mantle of power by a few men who wanted not a leader, but a meek who would say yes.

Then there is the matter of Haksar and company. whose advice profoundly affected Ms. Gandhi's decisions. (Not surprisingly, they were called Paanch Pandavas behind his back). They supported Indira unconditionally and, in fact, they encouraged her where she was not sure. Ramchandra Guha has described Haksar in his seminal work India after Gandhi in the following words:

Haksar was a scholar. Educated at the London School of Economics, he was called up to the Bar in the UK ... He was a mathematics student and was also very interested in history, particularly diplomatic and military history ... and anthropology ...

He tended to dominate his friends and colleagues with the variety of his knowledge and the vigor of his opinions ... However, he was not known for his reserve.

Without a doubt they influenced a young and impressionable Indira. The brashness that Ms Gandhi displayed in her later years strongly recalled Haksar's impetuousness during the formative years of his rule. I do not put the responsibility of the errors of Indira on the shoulders of its advisers; although they definitely participated in the events that followed, they were only a proximate cause, not an immediate one. After all,

the advisers have their own reasons for acting, their own views, but they only participate as long as the key person is in power: the mistress disappears after the king is dead.

There is also something to be said about Jaya Prakash Narayan. JP was always very sure of himself. PN Dhar, one of Indira's advisers, has written that:

He had no dilemmas, his mind was full of certainties. He was more in tune with the rhetoric of the revolution than with the complexities of running a difficult country.

It may be biased, but in this, Dhar has hit the mark. JP was not willing to give one iota of ground to Gandhi. No commitment, no conversations. I wanted his immediate and unconditional resignation. Talk about moral inflexibility, huh. I can't help but remember the advice given in Art of War: never put your enemy in a corner, which is exactly what JP did.

The only person whose role was minimal in the implementation of Emergency was, in my opinion, Sanjay Gandhi. In fact, he was never particularly in the limelight before the emergency. It is beside the point that he became one of the biggest morons of the time once the emergency was imposed.

Thanks for the A2A.

Much has been written. Therefore, I will try to be concise. The question you have asked has been much debated in most of the books written on Indira Gandhi. Mainly two sets of reasons arise.

1. Change of opinion
After the imposition of the emergency, the Government committed many excesses. The bureaucracy was working under Sanjay Gandhi. Some major incidents were the Turkman Gate tragedy and forced sterilization because bureaucrats were given aggressive targets. Indira Gandhi had almost gone to the background. Pupul Jaykar in it

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Thanks for the A2A.

Much has been written. Therefore, I will try to be concise. The question you have asked has been much debated in most of the books written on Indira Gandhi. Mainly two sets of reasons arise.

1. Change of opinion
After the imposition of the emergency, the Government committed many excesses. The bureaucracy was working under Sanjay Gandhi. Some major incidents were the Turkman Gate tragedy and forced sterilization because bureaucrats were given aggressive targets. Indira Gandhi had almost gone to the background. Pupul Jaykar in his book mentions that when he left his room deciding to end the emergency, he had tears in his eyes. Was there a silent display of superiority between her and Sanjay Gandhi? We do not know. Some sources say that Sanjay Gandhi was not consulted on this decision, although he was consulted a lot when the decision to impose the emergency was made.

2. Political miscalculations:
During the emergency, some measures of a highly visible nature were taken to make it appear that the emergency was good for ordinary people. Some examples are actions against hoarders that caused prices to drop and train punctuality. Furthermore, the political opposition at that time was completely fragmented. JP had not yet united them under a common political roof and Jagjivan Ram had not yet joined them. Also, there was a miscalculation about how long the euphoria of the 1971 victory would last.

Hence, the decision was made to withdraw in an emergency.

The cause of the decision can also be a combination of the two previous factors in any proportion.

Let me start at the beginning. In the 1971 elections, Ms Gandhi won de Rai barelle as a deputy. The opponent was Mr. Raj Narain. She filed a case in Allahabad High Court against Ms. Gandhi's choice. His lawyer's argument was that Mr. PN Haksar, Ms. Gandhi's secretary, worked for Gandhi's election even before his resignation was accepted. Based on this technical point, he presented the petition. Meanwhile, in the country, due to the Arab crisis, prices have skyrocketed and people are very restless. Especially in the northern states of India, corruption was rampant. Mr. Jaya Prakash Narayana and Mr. JB Kripall

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Let me start at the beginning. In the 1971 elections, Ms Gandhi won de Rai barelle as a deputy. The opponent was Mr. Raj Narain. She filed a case in Allahabad High Court against Ms. Gandhi's choice. His lawyer's argument was that Mr. PN Haksar, Ms. Gandhi's secretary, worked for Gandhi's election even before his resignation was accepted. Based on this technical point, he presented the petition. Meanwhile, in the country, due to the Arab crisis, prices have skyrocketed and people are very restless. Especially in the northern states of India, corruption was rampant. Mr. Jaya Prakash Narayana and Mr. JB Kripallani had started an agitation against the government of Ms. Gandhi. In June 1975, the Allahabad High Court had removed Ms. Gandhi in purely technical terms and had also suspended her sentence so that Ms. Gandhi could go to the Supreme Court. Meanwhile JP and Kripalani joined other opposition parties like Jana Sangh, Communist Party, etc., in such situation. JP called for a riot by the armed forces. This, no government can tolerate. Having no other choice, Ms Gandhi imposed the emergency and imprisoned all opposition leaders. Here one must remember one thing. There was already an emergency in the country that was imposed during the 1971 war with Pakistan regarding the liberation of Bangladesh. Now they have imposed the emergency with internal disturbances. There was already an emergency in the country that was imposed during the 1971 war with Pakistan regarding the liberation of Bangladesh. Now they have imposed the emergency with internal disturbances. There was already an emergency in the country that was imposed during the 1971 war with Pakistan regarding the liberation of Bangladesh. Now they have imposed the emergency with internal disturbances.

At that time, the largest circulation newspaper in India was Indian Express, controlled by Mr. Ramnath Goinka. He was an arch enemy of the Congress Party and Mr. Kuldip Nayyar was a journalist with him. What they wrote, people began to believe. In Andhra Pradesh, the newspaper with the largest circulation was Eenadu, controlled by Ramoji Rao, who is also against the Congress Party. The Indian Express group had regional language newspapers like Andhra Prabha in Telugu and Kannada Prabha in Kannada, etc. All these newspapers had begun to campaign against the government of Indira Gandhi. They went so far that Sanjay Gandhi got dirty ties with female Telugu film artists. No one questioned these things, as people had full faith in the newspapers and had misused it.

Excessive actions were carried out during 1975–77 in many northern Indian states, where, as in southern India, this period was a golden age. The result was that of the 42 parliament seats in Andhra Pradesh, 41 were won by the Congress Party and one by the Janata Party (Mr. N. Sanjeeva Reddy - who eventually elected as the President of India). In all four southern Indian states, the Congress Party had won 132 seats. I am not going to judge whether what Ms. Gandhi did was good or bad, but to tell the facts. Most of these facts never came to light as people still believe that what the newspapers wrote was correct.

It is a shame on the part of our newspapers that even today they continue to give biased news. Certain things will never see the light.

On the night of June 25, 1975, the Prime Minister recommended the imposition of Emergency to President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. He issued the proclamation immediately. The official statement stated that the safety of the Indians was threatened by internal unrest, but most critics claim that the real cause was political instability. The consequences of this act were multifaceted.

Immediate effect

  • After midnight, the electricity to the main newspaper offices was cut off. The government suspended freedom of the press and they were asked to obtain prior approval for all material to be published.
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On the night of June 25, 1975, the Prime Minister recommended the imposition of Emergency to President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. He issued the proclamation immediately. The official statement stated that the safety of the Indians was threatened by internal unrest, but most critics claim that the real cause was political instability. The consequences of this act were multifaceted.

Immediate effect

  • After midnight, the electricity to the main newspaper offices was cut off. The government suspended the freedom of the press and they were asked to obtain prior approval for all material to be published!
  • In the early hours of the morning, a large number of opposition party leaders and workers were detained under Preventive Detention. The Shah Commission estimated that about 1,11,000 people were arrested under pretrial detention laws.
  • The government banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamait-e-Islami. Neither were protests, strikes and public agitations allowed.

Other consequences

  • The Supreme Court of India issued a controversial ruling that during the emergency the government could take away the right to life and liberty of citizens. So the government did it exactly!
  • Sanjay Gandhi initiated an extensive program of compulsory sterilization to limit population growth even though he was not part of the government. The kitchen cabinet was so effective!
  • Various changes were made to the Constitution of India under the 42nd Constitution Act, which is generally referred to as the Mini Constitution.
  • On the positive side, PM Indira Gandhi announced a program 24 that included agrarian reforms, land redistribution, revision of agricultural wages, participation of workers in management, eradication of bonded labor, etc.
  • After the emergency period, the Lok Sabha elections were held in 1977. In this election, the Congress Party was defeated for the first time since independence, as it managed to win only 154 seats out of a total of 542 seats. While the Janata Party won 295 seats and therefore enjoyed a clear majority. Congress has its biggest opponent!

After this controversial emergency incidence there were several changes in the constitution. One of the notable changes was that the Janata Government passed the 44th Constitution Amendment Law and annulled most of the controversial provisions of the 42nd Constitutional Law.

Thanks!

I will limit my response to the discussion on "emergency withdrawal" only.
(If you want to know why it was imposed, you can read my answer to Politics of India: What were the reasons why Indira Gandhi imposed Emergency in 1975?)

Now we all know how authoritarian and dictatorial India Gandhi was during the emergency. India's strength has always been its vibrant democracy. Ours is perhaps the only country where people of contrasting castes, creeds, religions and races live together in peace and harmony. The other hallmarks of our country are strong judgments.

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I will limit my response to the discussion on "emergency withdrawal" only.
(If you want to know why it was imposed, you can read my answer to Politics of India: What were the reasons why Indira Gandhi imposed Emergency in 1975?)

Now we all know how authoritarian and dictatorial India Gandhi was during the emergency. India's strength has always been its vibrant democracy. Ours is perhaps the only country where people of contrasting castes, creeds, religions and races live together in peace and harmony. The other hallmarks of our country are a strong judicial system and a free press. The imposition of the emergency in 1975 struck at the very core of these ideals, which constitute our democracy. It was perhaps the darkest period in the history of independent India, and for good reason.

Now, the common mistake people make when they ask the question you asked is the fact that they know that the 1977 elections were held after the emergency was suspended. No, the emergency was still in effect at that time.

Conscious of her image of the world ...
In the world they described her as a dictator and she wanted to show that she was not.
According to Amnesty International, 140,000 people were detained without trial during Gandhi's twenty-month emergency. Jasjit Singh Grewal estimates that 40,000 were from India's two percent Sikh minority.
The Economist, from London, described the resistance movement against Indira's regime as "the only non-leftist revolutionary force in the world". He said the movement was "dominated by tens of thousands of RSS cadres, although more and more young recruits are coming in." Speaking of his goals, he said that "his platform at the moment has only one plank: to bring democracy back to India."

The
Plan Her department itself conducted a survey and told him that if he held the elections during the Emergency, he would return to power. Indira Gandhi also believed that the opposition was divided and that the elections would only accentuate the division between them. And by winning the elections, he could legitimize the Emergency and everything that happened as part of it before the international community and also formalize the position of Sanjay Gandhi.
That, perhaps, was the reason why he decided to announce the dissolution of the Lok Sabha on January 18, 1977 and the release of all political prisoners. More specifically, it did so unilaterally, in the same way as when the Emergency was proclaimed. Indira Gandhi called for new elections.
It was a brave decision, considering the fact that she didn't feel compelled to do so.

But ...
March 21, 1977 was indeed an important day in the history of independent India. The latest results of the general elections, held during the previous week, were released quite early in the morning of that day. And Indira Gandhi, her son Sanjay Gandhi, VC Shukla, Bansi Lal, Pranab Mukherjee, Om Mehta and others who had presided over the semi-fascist emergency regime had lost the elections.
The "plan" was miscalculated and backfired. The people played their historic role and expelled their government even though the Emergency still existed.

Ouchhh !! Burn down!!
Voters in Rae Bareili, a district that was rural in most parts, rejected Indira Gandhi most emphatically. Indira Gandhi had lost Rae Bareli by a margin of 55,202 votes!
And Sanjay Gandhi, who also tried his luck in neighboring Amethi, was humiliated by Ravindra P Singh, a political novice. The margin of victory in Amethi was 75,844 votes.
The Congress party was swept up in all parts of the north. And all of Indira Gandhi's men were defeated.
Indira Gandhi's congressional party was left blank in Bihar (with 54 seats in Lok Sabha), Himachal Pradesh (with 4 seats), Punjab (with 13 seats), Uttar Pradesh (with 85 seats) and Delhi (with 7 seats). ). The party won just one seat each in Haryana (out of 10), Madhya Pradesh (out of 40) and Rajasthan (out of 25). In West Bengal, Congress won only 3 out of 42 constituencies in Lok Sabha, 4 out of 21 in Orissa, 10 out of 25 in Gujarat and 20 out of 48 in Maharashtra. In total, the strength of Congress in the Lok Sabha stood at 154 (in the House of 542), the lowest in the party's history until then. Another issue is that, curiously, this is higher than the strength of the Congress Party after May 2004! :P

Now the twist ...
Have you heard of Bhasmasur? : D

See Indira Gandhi's government in 1971, enacted a controversial law, the Internal Security Maintenance Act, which gives Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's administration and India's law enforcement agencies superpowers: detention " indefinite "preventive" of persons, search and confiscation of property without a court order. and wiretapping - to quell civil and political disorder in India, as well as to counter sabotage, terrorism, subterfuge and foreign-inspired threats to national security, which were exploited by his regime during the emergency to stop the opposition.

Now that the political winds had turned and the opposition was in power with an overwhelming majority and the emergency was still in place, technically she and her allies were on the receiving end, and so how do I put it politely? shit.

She obviously couldn't change the law overnight, right? So what did she do. She canceled the emergency and resigned the following night on March 22, 1977.



References and further reading:

  • Indira Gandhi - Facts and Summary - HISTORY.com
  • The man who challenged Indira Gandhi
  • Why Indira Gandhi withdrew the Emergency
  • The emergency (India)
  • Emergency: the darkest period of Indian democracy

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi The third and only Prime Minister of India in history. He had many wonderful achievements in his name that will never be forgotten in history, such as India's first nuclear test and also for some work, never done by any leader in the world as in December 1971 changing the world map with decisive victory. of India over Pakistan. in the liberation war, which led to the formation of independent Bangladesh. But there are some wonderful mistakes also made by Indira Gandhi herself. Here I mention 3 mistakes made by her that cannot be easily forgotten by the nation either.

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Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi The third and only Prime Minister of India in history. He had many wonderful achievements in his name that will never be forgotten in history, such as India's first nuclear test and also for some work, never done by any leader in the world as in December 1971 changing the world map with decisive victory. of India over Pakistan. in the liberation war, which led to the formation of independent Bangladesh. But there are some wonderful mistakes also made by Indira Gandhi herself. Here I mention 3 mistakes made by her that also cannot be easily forgotten by the nation and about which the question should be raised.

  • The first mistake - In 1971 he had the great opportunity to solve the Kashmir problem once and for all, not only the Kashmir problem but also the terrorism problem. Pakistan would not have become a terrorist state creating problems for India. In 1971, India had 93,000 prisoners of war (prisoners of war) that Indira Gandhi gave them for free along with land captured by Indian force. It could have imposed many sanctions on Pakistan, such as limiting the number of Army personnel in the area, recovering the POK that never interfered in the Kashmir Valley, and many more, as the United States did with Germany after World War I in 1918. in the Treaty of Versailles. In addition to this, the Baluchistanis should not be oppressed by the Pakistani army.
  • Second mistake - Emergency - in 1975 she tried to control the judicial system only because in an electoral petition filed by her opponent, Raj Narain in 1971 (who later defeated her in Raebareli's 1977 parliamentary elections), she alleged several important and minor cases. of using government resources to campaign. On June 12, 1975, the Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha in 1971 void due to electoral negligence. Many historians believe that this is one of the main reasons for the emergency declared by her on June 25, 1975. During the Emergency period, the Police received powers to impose curfews and indefinitely detain citizens.
  • Third mistake, the rise of Bhindranwale, in the late 1970s, Indira Gandhi supported Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale in an attempt to split Sikh votes and weaken Akali dal, her main rival in Punjab. Bhindranwale was not originally very influential, but Congressional activities elevated him to the status of an important leader in the early 1980s. Bhindranwale was responsible for launching Sikh militancy during the 1980s. From the early 1980s , Bhindranwale was supported by the ISI of Pakistan in its radical separatist position, plans and operations and this rise of Bhindranwale which ended the blue star operation and which also became the reason for the assassination of Indira Gandhi.

If Indira Gandhi had not made these 3 mistakes, the nation would have remembered her as a different leader. But now, every time someone says their iron lady, those questions start to stun the compatriots.

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Tushar's Trading House Bhushan Tawade and Praveen Maxter are collaborators

Source:

Three mistakes in the life of Indira Gandhi We cannot allow ourselves to have another Indira. | MyVoice | OpIndia | ऑपइंडिया https://myvoice.opindia.com/2019/03/three-mistakes-of-indira-gandhis-life/

Indira Gandhi is one of the most controversial figures in the history of India. But if you ask me, I would say that Indira Gandhi was the best PM India has ever had.

Many people hate her for many of her actions:

  1. She was always hungry for power. She used to replace and remove CM at will.
  2. She appointed AN Ray as CJI in 1973, thus replacing two senior judges for the position. It was considered that AN Ray was close to Indira and was in favor of her policies.
  3. They hated her for her nepotism. She always favored members of her family over other more deserving candidates.
  4. He even brought amendments to the constitution.
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Indira Gandhi is one of the most controversial figures in the history of India. But if you ask me, I would say that Indira Gandhi was the best PM India has ever had.

Many people hate her for many of her actions:

  1. She was always hungry for power. She used to replace and remove CM at will.
  2. She appointed AN Ray as CJI in 1973, thus replacing two senior judges for the position. It was considered that AN Ray was close to Indira and was in favor of her policies.
  3. They hated her for her nepotism. She always favored members of her family over other more deserving candidates.
  4. He even filed amendments to the constitution to get his way.
  5. The most commented period of his government was the emergency period. She took away the fundamental rights of citizens and reduced the courts to mere spectators. To add insult to injury, his useless son Sanjay Gandhi started destroying the houses where poor people used to live, under the guise of 'Garibi hatao' and the beautification of India. He also started forced sterilization programs to control the population.
  6. Thousands of Sikhs died during and after Operation Bluestar. Sikh riots occurred after his assassination.

Despite the points mentioned above, Indira Gandhi was still admired for her political acumen and her desire to develop India.

  1. She was responsible for the abolition of private purses.
  2. She nationalized the banks, which was considered a masterstroke by the people. Consequently, poor people could now borrow from banks without fear of extraordinarily high interest rates.
  3. She was a strong leader who refused to submit to the will of the Western powers, unlike our leaders now who are literally chamchas of the United States and other powers.
  4. She was hailed for the way she handled the 1971 war and for the liberation of Bangladesh. Even Vajpayee (in opposition at the time) referred to her as an avatar of Durga.
  5. Indira Gandhi possessed a quality that many of her successors seem to lack: the ability to make decisions, no matter how difficult they were. His Indo-Soviet Friendship Treaty of August 1971, which almost guaranteed Soviet aid in future conflicts, was seen as crucial to winning the Indo-Pak war. 1971 Indian War Pakistan: Role of Russia, China, the United States and Great Britain

Many people hate Indira for whatever reasons they may have, but Indira Gandhi was one of the best leaders India has ever had and she will be one of the best for a long time. Even Modi cannot match the power of Indira Gandhi. Just watch his interview videos and things like that on youtube. You will see how safe and extraordinary it was.

Thanks for the A2A.

One of the first things the Morarji government did after coming to power was to appoint the Shah's Commission to delve into the details of the excesses committed during the emergency (May 28, 1977). The president of the Commission, Judge Shah, set a deadline of August 3, 1977 for the presentation of cases. The Shah Commission tried to follow the procedure adopted in a court of law and provided legal representation to all those who were testifying. The Shah Commission made some hearings public.

However, the summons sent to the witnesses to testify did not contain the subject of the cas

Keep reading

Thanks for the A2A.

One of the first things the Morarji government did after coming to power was to appoint the Shah's Commission to delve into the details of the excesses committed during the emergency (May 28, 1977). The president of the Commission, Judge Shah, set a deadline of August 3, 1977 for the presentation of cases. The Shah Commission tried to follow the procedure adopted in a court of law and provided legal representation to all those who were testifying. The Shah Commission made some hearings public.

However, the summons sent to the witnesses to testify did not contain the subject of the case in which the witness had to testify. They simply said that they should testify before the Commission without being told in which case their testimony was needed. Since the subpoena was not adequate, many people refused to testify, notably Indira Gandhi herself and Pranab Mukherjee.

Finally, the Shah Commission was able to present its final report on August 6, 1978. The original deadline was December 1977, which was later extended until June 30, 1978. The main conclusions of the Commission were:

1. The decision to impose the emergency was not justified, since there was no
problem of public order and there were no situations classified as "internal disturbances".
2. The provisions of the Internal Security Maintenance Act (MISA) were misused
to settle political scores.
3. The most scathing criticism was reserved for the bureaucracy. The Commission
observed that they “crawled when asked to bend over”.

It was decided that special courts would be created which were created on May 8, 1979. However, the Government collapsed on July 16, 1979.

On July 28, 1979, Charan Singh was sworn in as Prime Minister of India after the fall of the Morarji Desai government. Ironically, this government was formed with the external support of Congress.

Meanwhile, the demands of Congress were increasing. In exchange for her support, Indira Gandhi demanded that all cases against her and her associates related to the emergency be dropped. When these demands were not accepted, Congress withdrew its support for the Charan Singh government. Charan Singh had to demonstrate his majority on the floor of the house after 2 days. In fact, according to some analysts, Charan Singh had threatened to present the Shah Commission Report in Parliament. The Lok Sabha was dissolved on August 22, 1979 by the President of India. Charan Singh continues as Prime Minister until the results of new elections are declared.

In the elections held in 1980. Indira Gandhi returned to power and became Prime Minister on January 16, 1980.

The Supreme Court soon made the decision that the special courts that had been formed in 1979 had not been legally constituted. Therefore, no trials were ever carried out.

Indira Gandhi did everything possible to ensure that the Shah Commission report was never made public and the Government removed all copies. However, some copies may have been made. It was Sezhiyan, one of the Lok Sabha members at that time revived the Shah Commission report in 2010. He called it Shah Commission Report - Lost and Recovered.


According to wikipedia, the National Library of Australia has a copy of this report.

On October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated.

Any time is the right time to declare an emergency in India.

Is there anything in India that is not one step away from disaster all the time?

We touted democracy as our great success, but it has put the power and opportunity of rampant corruption in the hands of a handful of people we continue to vote for. Do we have an alternative in sight? It seems not.

We have rampant indiscipline in every way possible, from the way we drive to the way we run our education and public health systems, litter our cities, ruin our bodies of water, and come away with so much senseless destruction that no one

Keep reading

Any time is the right time to declare an emergency in India.

Is there anything in India that is not one step away from disaster all the time?

We touted democracy as our great success, but it has put the power and opportunity of rampant corruption in the hands of a handful of people we continue to vote for. Do we have an alternative in sight? It seems not.

We have rampant indiscipline in every way possible, from the way we drive to the way we run our education and public health systems, litter our cities, ruin our bodies of water, and get away with so much senseless destruction that no one can. answer. Is this an emergency? Hell yeah.

In the name of freedom, we have completely forgotten about responsibility. Do we give a shit? Of course, no. We want to live below potential, always blame others, and we don't mind giving in to a lot of illegality, every day. As a result, we live like a bunch of dirty rats, searching for some fresh air and food that won't kill us, rather than living in a state close to utopia, given India's wealth of resources. Where is the quality of life that we should have as human beings?

More and more Indians succumb to stress and yet we only make weak noises and weaker attempts to make our cities and towns livable, leaving them pleasant. What's the use of living like this? Should we declare an ecological emergency? Of course yes!

We all get nervous for stupid political reasons, but hardly any citizen will file a lawsuit against someone who is screwing up the system, make an official complaint against a dysfunctional government employee, or raise a tone and shout about the rampant illegality that is happening in our country. country. neighborhood. Why are we so cowardly? Social emergency? Of course!

Do we deserve a better nation? I certainly think so. Can I do something to get others to join me? A little. The majority? I have no hope. Are there times when I think we should be bombarded into the stone age and start over? Sure. If this is not an emergency in my mind, what will?

Unfortunately, I am a human and an Indian, and this is a deadly combination both in action and in inaction. This in itself should be looked into immediately.

Of course, we are facing a perennial emergency. Why not declare it and start fixing it?

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